Caroline Durif

Senior Research Scientist

Caroline M.F. Durif

Institute of Marine Research

Marine Ecosystem Acoustics Group
Austevoll Research Station
5392 Storebø, NORWAY
Tel. +47 97 62 72 69

See Caroline’s Google Scholar Author Profile
See Caroline’s profile on ResearchGate
See Caroline’s profile on LinkedIN

For additional details, see my CV
Below is a word cloud that is descriptive of my research activity – click on the thumbnail to enlarge it.

Caroline_2016 wordle2


PhD (2003) in Aquatic Ecology (honors), University of Toulouse (France)
MSc (1998) in Biological Oceanography, Paris VI University
BSc (1996) in Ecology, Paris VI University

Areas of expertise and interest

I’m interested in fish ecology and more specifically habitat preference and migratory behaviors: freshwater-saltwater transition, migratory triggers, age at maturation, species distribution and habitat.

Most of my research has dealt with the European eel, but I’m currently working with other species such as lumpfish and certain wrasse species (which are currently used as delousing agents in salmon farms). I’m involved in monitoring their wild populations for management purposes.My other research activities relating to more general marine ecology deal with effects of climate changes (increase of solar ultraviolet radiation, ocean acidification) on phyto and zooplankton. These experiments involve growing microalgae under different UV exposure treatments, rearing copepods under different pH treatments.

I enjoy working with large datasets and have a broad interest in exploratory data analyses, time-series analyses, and inferential statistics.

Key words: fish ecology, behavior, migration, diadromy, otolith, magnetic orientation, data analysis, ocean acidification, ultraviolet radiation

Active projects

-Project leader – Lumpfish monitoring program
-Project leader – Eel monitoring program and magnetic orientation of eel
-Monitoring of wrasse population in Norway (Led by A.B. Skiftesvik)
-Effects of ocean acidification on marine organisms and ecosystems (Led by Howard Browman)
-Fine-scale interactions in the plankton – empirical observations in support of trophodynamic models project (Led by H.I. Browman)


Durif, C., Elie, P., Dufour, S., Marchelidon, J. & Vidal, B. 2000. Analysis of morphological and physiological parameters during the silvering process of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in the lake of Grand-Lieu (France). Cybium 24 (3): 63-74.
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Durif, C. 2003. Thesis abstract: The downstream migration of the European eel, Anguilla anguilla: characterization of migrating silver eels, migration phenomenon, and obstacle avoidance. PhD thesis, University of Toulouse, France 348 p. (Full text available at:
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Durif, C., Elie, P., Gosset, C., Rives, J. & Travade, F., 2003. Behavioral study of downstream migrating eels by radio-telemetry at a small hydroelectric power plant. In Biology, Management, and Protection of Catadromous Eels, DA Dixon ed. American Fisheries Society, Symposium 33. Bethesda, Maryland. pp. 345-356.
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Durif C., Dufour, S. & Elie, P. 2005. The silvering process of the European eel: a new classification from the yellow resident stage to the silver migrating stage. Journal of Fish Biology 66: 1025-1043.
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Gosset, C., Travade F., Durif C., Rives, J. & Elie, P. 2005. Tests of two types of bypasses for the downstream migration of eels at a small hydroelectric power plant. River Research and Applications 21:1095-1105.
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Durif C., Dufour S. & Elie P. 2006. Impact of silvering stage, body size and condition on reproduction potential of the European eel. Marine Ecology Progress Series 327:171-181.
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van Ginneken V., Durif C., Dufour S., Sbaihi M., Boot R., Noorlander K., Doornbos J., Murk T., & van den Thillart G. 2007 Endocrine and metabolic profiles during silvering of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.). Animal Biology 57(1): 453-465.
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van Ginneken V., Durif C., Balm S.P., Boot R., Verstegen M.W.A., Antonissen E., van den Thillart G. 2007. Silvering of European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.): seasonal changes of morphological and metabolic parameters. Animal Biology57:63-77.
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Durif C.M.F. and Elie P. 2008. Prediction of downstream migration of silver eels in a large river catchment based on commercial fishery data. Fisheries Management and Ecology 15: 127-137.
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Durif C.M.F., van Ginneken V., Dufour S., Müller T., Elie P., 2009. Seasonal evolution and individual differences in silvering eels from different locations. In: Van den Thillart G., Dufour S., Rankin J.C. (Eds.) Spawning migration of the European eel: Reproduction index, a useful tool for conservation management, Fish and Fisheries Series 30, Springer, pp 13-38.
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Durif C.M.F., Travade F., Rives J., Elie, P., Gosset C. 2008. Relationship between locomotor activity, environmental factors, and timing of the spawning migration in the European eel, Anguilla anguillaAquatic Living Resources. 21: 163-170.
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Bruijs M.C.M., Durif C.M.F. 2009. Silver eel migration and behaviour. In: Van den Thillart G, Dufour S, Rankin JC (eds) Spawning migration of the European eel: Reproduction index, a useful tool for conservation management. Fish & Fisheries Series 30, Springer, pp 65-95.
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Durif C., Guibert A., Elie P., 2009. Morphological discrimination of the silvering stages of the European eel. In: Casselman JM, Cairns DK (eds) Eels at the edge: science, status, and conservation concerns. American Fisheries Society Symposium 58, Bethesda, Maryland, pp 103-111.
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Durif C.M.F., Gjøsæter, J., Vøllestad L.A. 2011. Influence of oceanic factors on the marine subpopulation of Anguilla anguilla (L.) over the twentieth century in coastal habitats of the Skagerrak, Southern Norway. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 278: 464-473.
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Fields,D.M., C.M.F. Durif, R.M. Bjelland, S.D. Shema, A.B. Skiftesvik & H.I. Browman. 2011. Grazing rates of Calanus finmarchicus on diatoms cultured under different levels of ultraviolet radiation. PLoS ONE 6(10) e26333.
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Fukunishi, Y., H.I. Browman, C.M.F. Durif, R. Bjelland & A.B. Skiftesvik. 2012. The effect of UV radiation on the susceptibility of Atlantic cod larvae to predation. PLoS ONE 7(4) e35554.
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Durif, C.M.F. 2012. Review of “Eels: an Exploration, from New Zealand to the Sargasso, of the World’s most amazing and mysterious fish” by James Prozek. The Quarterly Review of Biology 87, 169.
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Durif, C.M.F., H.I. Browman, A.B. Skiftesvik, L.A. Vøllestad, H.H. Stockhausen & J.B. Phillips. 2013. Magnetic compass orientation in the European eel. PLoS ONE 8(3)e59212.
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Maneja, R.H., A.Y. Frommel, H.I. Browman, C. Clemmesen, A.J. Geffen, A. Folkvord, U. Piatkowski, C.M.F. Durif, R. Bjelland & A.B. Skiftesvik. 2013. The swimming kinematics of larval Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, are resilient to elevated seawater pCO2. Marine Biology 160: 1963-1972.
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Skiftesvik, A.B., R.M. Bjelland, C.M.F. Durif, I.S. Johansen and H.I. Browman. 2013. Delousing of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) by cultured vs. wild ballan wrasse (Labrus bergylta). Aquaculture 402-403: 113-118.
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Fukunishi, Y., H.I. Browman, C.M.F. Durif, R. Bjelland, S.D. Shema, D.M. Fields, A.B. Skiftesvik. 2013. Sub-lethal exposure to ultraviolet radiation reduces prey consumption by Atlantic cod larvae (Gadus morhua). Marine Biology 160: 2591-2596.
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Skiftesvik, A.B., Blom, G., Agnalt, A.-L., Durif, C., Browman, H.I., Bjelland, R.M., Harkestad, L,S., Farestveit, E., Paulsen , O.I., Fauske, M., Havelin, T., Johnsen, K., Mortensen, S. 2014. Wrasse (Labridae) as cleaner fish in salmonid aquaculture – The Hardanger fjord as a case study. Marine Biology Research 10: 289-300.
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Eriksen, E., Durif, C.M.F., Prozorkevich, D. 2014. Lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) in the Barents Sea: Development of a biomass and abundance index and analysis of spatial distribution. ICES Journal of Marine Science 71: 2398-2402.
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Pampoulie, C., Skirnisdottir, S., Olafsdottir, G., Helyar, S., Thorsteinsson, V., Jonsson, S., Frechet, A., Durif, C.M.F., Sherman, S., Lampart-Kaluzniacka, M., Hedelholm, R., Danielsdottir, A.K., Kasper, J.M. 2014. Genetic structure of the lumpfish Cyclopterus lumpus across the North Atlantic. ICES Journal of Marine Science 71: 2390-2397.
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Melià, P., Crivelli, A. J., Durif, C., Poole, R., and Bevacqua, D. 2014. A simplified method to estimate body growth parameters of the European eel Anguilla anguillaJournal of Fish Biology 85: 978-984.
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Fields, D.M., J.A. Runge, C. Thompson, S.D. Shema, R.M. Bjelland, C.M.F. Durif, A.B. Skiftesvik & H.I. Browman. 2015. Infection of the planktonic copepod Calanus finmarchicus by the parasitic dinoflagellate, Blastodinium spp.: effects on grazing, respiration, fecundity, and fecal pellet production. Journal of Plankton Research 37: 211-220.
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Skiftesvik, A.B., Durif, C.M.F. Bjelland R.M. & H.I. Browman. 2015. Distribution and habitat preferences of five species of wrasse (family Labridae) in a Norwegian fjord. ICES Journal of Marine Science 72: 890-899.
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Maneja, R.H., A.Y. Frommel, H.I. Browman, A.J. Geffen, A. Folkvord, U. Piatkowski, C.M.F. Durif, R. Bjelland, A.B. Skiftesvik & C. Clemmesen. 2015. The swimming kinematics and foraging behavior of larval Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus L., are resilient to elevated pCO2. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 466: 42-48.
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Durif, C.M.F., D.M. Fields, H.I. Browman, S.D. Shema, J.R. Enoae, A.B. Skiftesvik, R.M. Bjelland, R. Sommaruga and M.T. Arts. 2015. UV radiation changes algal stoichiometry but does not have cascading effects on a marine food chain. Journal of Plankton Research 37: 1120-1136. (Featured article).
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Runge, J.A., D.M. Fields, C. Thompson, S. Shema, R.M. Bjelland, C.M.F. Durif, A.B. Skiftesvik & H.I. Browman. 2016. End of the century CO2 concentrations do not have a negative effect on vital rates of Calanus finmarchicus, an ecologically critical planktonic species in North Atlantic ecosystems. ICES Journal of Marine Science 73: 937-950.
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Bailey, A., P. Thor, H.I. Browman, D.M. Fields, J.A. Runge, A. Vermont, R. Bjelland, C. Thompson, S. Shema, C.M.F. Durif & H. Hop. 2016. The early life stages of the Arctic copepod Calanus glacialis are unaffected by increased seawater pCO2. ICES Journal of Marine Science.
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Halvorsen, K.T., T.K. Sørdalen, C.M.F. Durif, H. Knutsen, E.M. Olsen, A.B. Skiftesvik, T.E. Rustand, R.M. Bjelland & L.A. Vøllestad. 2016. Male biased sexual size dimorphism in the nest building corkwing  wrasse (Symphodus melops): implications for a size regulated fishery.ICES Journal of Marine Science 73: 2586-2594.
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Loew, E.R., A.B. Skiftesvik, R. Bjelland, H.I. Browman & C. Durif. 2016. Spectral sensitivity and contrast potentials for four species of cleaner fish. Institute of Marine Research Report No. 39-2016. 12 pp.
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Cresci, A, C.B. Paris, C.M.F. Durif, S. Shema, R. Bjelland, A.B. Skiftesvik & H.I. Browman. Glass eel (Anguilla anguilla) have a magnetic compass linked to the tidal cycle. Science Advances (in press).

Submitted and in preparation manuscripts

Bjelland, R.M., Opstad, O., Skiftesvik, A.B. & H.I. Browman. Comparison of behaviour, growth and gut enzyme activity in the early life stages of cod (Gadus morhua L.) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus L.).

Bjelland, R.M., Skiftesvik, A.B. & H.I. Browman. Behavioural responses of larval cod (Gadus morhua L.) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus L.) to odours.

Browman, H.I., R.C. Chambers, A.B. Skiftesvik & C.M.F. Durif. Search strategy and foraging behaviour in young-of-the-year Atlantic lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpusL.).

Durif, C.M.F., Eriksen, E. Lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) in the Barents Sea: Trends in stock and temporal variation between 1980 and 2012.

Durif, C.M.F., A.B. Skiftesvik, R.M. Bjelland & H.I. Browman. Population estimates for several species of wrasse in Norway using mark-recapture techniques.

Durif, C.M.F., Relationship between eel skin color and maturation stage.

Durif, C.M.F., Verhey, E., Palstra, A., Hekman, M., van Ginneken, V., Lipid compounds in muscle and ovary tissue in pre-migrant and silver (migratory) European eel: an MRI and LCMS study.

Durif, C.M.F., A.B. Skiftesvik & H.I. Browman. Marine vs. freshwater residency of European eels during the ongrowing life history stages.

Paris, C.B., H.I. Browman, A.B. Skiftesvik, S. Shema, M. Foretich, R.M. Bjelland, C.M.F. Durif & C.J. O’Brien. Ontogeny of orientation in Atlantic haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) larvae measured in situ.

Paris, C.B., H.I. Browman, A.B. Skiftesvik, S. Shema, M. Foretich, R.M. Bjelland, C.M.F. Durif & C.J. O’Brien & S. Meier. Effect of petrochemicals on swimming and orientation of Atlantic haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) larvae measured in situ.

Skiftesvik, A.B., C.M.F. Durif, R.M. Bjelland & H.I. Browman. Effect of fishing pressure on age, growth and species composition of wrasse along the Norwegian coast, 1990-present day.

Last updated: 8 April 2017