David M. Fields

Associate Research Scientist

Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences
60 Bigelow Drive
P.O. Box 380 East Boothbay, ME
USA 04544
Tel. 1-202-747-3255, ext. 313
Email: dfields@bigelow.org

See David’s profile on the Bigelow Lab web site HERE
See David’s ResearchGate profile HERE

Education

Ph.D., Oceanography, State University of New York (1996)
M.S., Oceanography, State University of New York (1991)
B.A., Biology, University of Utah (1986)

Outline of research

Dr. Fields is a zooplankton ecologist. The Fields’ laboratory studies the role of zooplankton (particularly copepods) in transferring organic matter through the food web and in mediating bio-geochemical cycling in the oceans.  Our approach is to understand how the mechanisms that occur at the level of the individual animal drive regional and global scale distribution patterns in zooplankton.  This work incorporates general data of zooplankton ecology (classical grazing experiments, egg production and developmental rates) as well as data from small-scale fluid mechanics, neurophysiology and animal behavior.

Ongoing Research

Sensory ecology and neurophysiology of marine zooplankton. 
We study the characteristics of the setal motion (and the required fluid motion and force) that gives rise to the neurophysiological response in copepod mechanoreceptors. The work aims to how copepods differentiate among the myriad of fluid signals in their environment and how copepods code these complex signals in a rapid yet highly accurate manner.

Impact of global climate change on zooplankton populations. We study effects of natural and anthropogenic changes on the energy transfer between trophic levels. Specifically we focus on grazing, respiration, reproduction and fecal pellet production rates of copepods under different climate scenarios.

Active projects

  • NSF- Bio Oce. Ocean Acidification– Effects of ocean acidification on Emiliania huxleyi and Calanus finmarchicus; insights into the oceanic alkalinity and biological pumps.
  • NSF- Chem Oce. Assessing the chemical speciation and bioavailability or iron regenerated by marine zooplankton.
  • NOAA – Implications of ocean acidification on carbon export in a simplified planktonic food chain: Experiments using Acartia and Pleurochrysis.
  • Moore Foundation – Carbon and gene flow mediated by virus.
  • Institute of Marine Research, Norway – Effects of ocean acidification on Calanus spp.

Publications

Behavioural responses of infective-stage copepodids of the salmon louse (Lepeoptheirus salmonis, Copepoda:Caligidae) to host-related sensory cues

Fields, D.M., A.B. Skiftesvik & H.I. Browman. 2017. Behavioural responses of infective-stage copepodids of the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis, Copepoda:Caligidae) to host-related sensory cues. Journal of Fish Diseases 2017;00:1–10. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfd.12690
Read the paper

Regulation of gene expression underpins tolerance of the Arctic copepod Calanus glacialis to increased pCO2.

Bailey, A., P. de Wit, P. Thor, H.I. Browman, R.M. Bjelland, S. Shema, D.M. Fields, J.A. Runge, C. Thompson & H. Hop. 2017. Regulation of gene expression underpins tolerance of the Arctic copepod Calanus glacialis to increased pCO2. Ecology and Evolution 2017: 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.3063
Read the paper

The early life stages of the Arctic copepod Calanus glacialis are unaffected by increased seawater pCO2.

Bailey, A., P. Thor, H.I. Browman, D.M. Fields, J.A. Runge, A. Vermont, R. Bjelland, C. Thompson, S. Shema, C.M.F. Durif & H. Hop. 2017. The early life stages of the Arctic copepod Calanus glacialis are unaffected by increased seawater pCO2. ICES Journal of Marine Science 74: 996-1004.
Read the paper

Early life stages of the Arctic copepod Calanus glacialis are unaffected by increased seawater pCO2.

Bailey A., P. Thor, H. Browman, D.M. Fields, J. Runge, A. Vermont, R. Bjelland, C. Thompson, S. Shema, C. Durif & H. Hop. 2016. Early life stages of the Arctic copepod Calanus glacialis are unaffected by increased seawater pCO2. ICES Journal of Marine Science 74: 996-1004.

Differential gene expression is tied to photochemical efficiency reduction in virally-infected Emiliania huxleyi.

Gilg, I.C., S.D. Archer, S.A. Floge, D.M. Fields, A.I. Vermont, A.H. Leavitt, W.H. Wilson & J. Martínez Martínez. 2016. Differential gene expression is tied to photochemical efficiency reduction in virally-infected Emiliania huxleyi. Marine Ecology Progress Series 555: 13-27.
Read the paper

End of the century CO2 concentrations do not have a negative effect on vital rates of Calanus finmarchicus, an ecologically critical planktonic species in North Atlantic ecosystems.

Runge J.A., D.M. Fields, C.R.S. Thompson, S.D. Shema, R.M. Bjelland, C.M.F Durif, A.B. Skiftesvik & H.I. Browman. 2016. End of the century CO2 concentrations do not have a negative effect on vital rates of Calanus finmarchicus, an ecologically critical planktonic species in North Atlantic ecosystems. ICES Journal of Marine Science 73(3): 937-950.
Read the paper

Virus infection of Emiliania huxleyi deters grazing by the copepod Acartia tonsa.

Vermont, A.I., J. Martínez Martínez, J. Waller, I.C. Gilg, A.H. Leavitt, S.A. Floge, S.D. Archer, W.H. Wilson & D.M. Fields. 2016. Virus infection of Emiliania huxleyi deters grazing by the copepod Acartia tonsa. Journal of Plankton Research 38(5): 1194-1205. doi:10.1093/plankt/fbw064
Read the paper

Linking rising CO2 and temperature to the larval development and physiology of the American lobster (Homarus americanus)

Waller, J., R. Wahle & D.M. Fields. 2016. Linking rising CO2 and temperature to the larval development and physiology of the American lobster (Homarus americanus) ICES Journal of Marine Science (in press).
Read the paper

The effect of hydrostatic pressure on grazing in three calanoid copepods.

Zarubin, M., Y. Lindemann, O. Brunner, D.M. Fields, H.I. Browman & A. Genin. 2016. The effect of hydrostatic pressure on grazing in three calanoid copepods. Journal of Plankton Research 38: 131-138.
Read the paper

UV radiation changes algal stoichiometry but does not have cascading effects on a marine food chain.

Durif C.M.F., D.M. Fields, H.I. Browman, S.D. Shema, J.R. Enoae, A.B. Skiftesvik, R.M. Bjelland, R. Sommaruga & M.T. Arts. 2015. UV radiation changes algal stoichiometry but does not have cascading effects on a marine food chain. Journal of Plankton Research 37(6): 1120–36.
Read the paper

Infection of the planktonic copepod Calanus finmarchicus by the parasitic dinoflagellate, Blastodinium spp.: effects on grazing, respiration, fecundity, and fecal pellet production.

Fields, D.M., J.A. Runge, C. Thompson, S.D. Shema, R.M. Bjelland, C.M.F. Durif, A.B. Skiftesvik & H.I. Browman. 2015. Infection of the planktonic copepod Calanus finmarchicus by the parasitic dinoflagellate, Blastodinium spp.: effects on grazing, respiration, fecundity, and fecal pellet production. Journal of Plankton Research 37: 211-220.
Read the paper

The sensory horizon of marine copepods

Fields, D.M. 2014. The sensory horizon of marine copepods, pp: 157-179, In, Seuront, L. (Ed.), Copepods: Diversity, Habitat and Behavior. Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
Read the book chapter

The regeneration of highly bioavailable iron by meso- and microzooplankton.

Nuester J., S. Shema, A. Vermont, D.M. Fields, B.S. Twining. 2014. The regeneration of highly bioavailable iron by meso- and microzooplankton. Limnology and Oceanography 59(4): 1399–1409.
Read the paper

Sub-lethal exposure to ultraviolet radiation reduces prey consumption by Atlantic cod larvae (Gadus morhua).

Fukunishi Y., H.I. Browman, C.M.F. Durif, R.M. Bjelland, S.D. Shema, D.M. Fields, A.B. Skiftesvik. 2013. Sub-lethal exposure to ultraviolet radiation reduces prey consumption by Atlantic cod larvae (Gadus morhua). Marine Biology 160(10): 2591-6.
Read the paper

Effects of ocean acidification on growth and development of the planktonic copepod, Calanus finmarchicus.

Runge, J.A., C. Thompson, R.M. Bjelland, H.I. Browman, C.M.F. Durif, D.M. Fields, S. Shema & A.B. Skiftesvik. 2013. Effects of ocean acidification on growth and development of the planktonic copepod, Calanus finmarchicus. Poster presented at the U.S. National Science Foundation’s 2nd U.S. Ocean Acidification Principal Investigator’s Meeting. Washington, D.C., USA, 18-20 September 2013.
View the poster

Light Primes the Escape Response of the Calanoid Copepod, Calanus finmarchicus.

Fields D.M., S.D. Shema SD, H.I. Browman, T.Q. Browne & A.B. Skiftesvik. 2012. Light Primes the Escape Response of the Calanoid Copepod, Calanus finmarchicus. Plos ONE 7(6): e39594.
Read the paper

Fine-scale observations of the predatory behaviour of the carnivorous copepod Paraeuchaeta norvegica and the escape responses of their ichthyoplankton prey, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

Browman, H.I., J. Yen, D.M. Fields, J.-F. St-Pierre & A.B. Skiftesvik. 2011. Fine-scale observations of the predatory behaviour of the carnivorous copepod Paraeuchaeta norvegica and the escape responses of their ichthyoplankton prey, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Marine Biology 158: 2653-2660.
Read the paper

Grazing Rates of Calanus finmarchicus on Thalassiosira weissflogii Cultured under Different Levels of Ultraviolet Radiation.

Fields, D.M., C.M.F. Durif, R.M. Bjelland, S.D. Shema, A.B. Skiftesvik & H.I. Browman. 2011. Grazing rates of Calanus finmarchicus on Thalassiosira weissflogii cultured under different levels of ultraviolet radiation. PLoS ONE 6(19) e26333.
Read the paper

The three-dimensional prey field of the northern krill, Meganyctiphanes norvegica, and the escape responses of their copepod prey.

Abrahamsen, M.B., H.I. Browman, D.M. Fields & A.B. Skiftesvik. 2010. The three-dimensional prey field of the northern krill, Meganyctiphanes norvegica, and the escape responses of their copepod prey. Marine Biology 157: 1251-1258.
Read the paper

Orientation affects the sensitivity of Acartia tonsa to fluid mechanical signals.

Fields, D.M. 2010. Orientation affects the sensitivity of Acartia tonsa to fluid mechanical signals. Marine Biology. 157: 505-514.
Read the paper

Chemoreception in the salmon louse (Lepeoptheirus salmonis: an electrophysiological approach.

Fields, D.M., M.J. Weissburg & H.I. Browman. 2007. Chemoreception in the salmon louse (Lepeoptheirus salmonis: an electrophysiological approach. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 78: 161-168.
Read the paper

Evolutionary and ecological significance of mechanosensor morphology: copepods as a model system.

Fields, D.M. & M.J. Weissburg. 2005. Evolutionary and ecological significance of mechanosensor morphology: copepods as a model system. Marine Ecology Progress Series 287: 269-274.
Read the paper

Rapid firing rates from mechanosensory neurons in copepod antennules.

Fields, D.M. & M.J. Weissburg. 2004. Rapid firing rates from mechanosensory neurons in copepod antennules. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 190: 877-882.
Read the paper

Selective feeding of Arctodiaptomus salinus (Copepoda, Calanaoida) on co-occurring sibling rotifer species.

Lapesa, S., T.W. Snell, D.M. Fields & M. Serra. 2004. Selective feeding of Arctodiaptomus salinus (Copepoda, Calanaoida) on co-occurring sibling rotifer species. Freshwater Biology 49: 1053-1061.
Read the paper

Mapping the attack volume of a free-swimming planktonic copepod, Euchaeta rimana.

Doall, M.H., J.R. Strickler, D.M. Fields & J. Yen. 2002. Mapping the attack volume of a free-swimming planktonic copepod, Euchaeta rimana. Marine Biology 140: 871-879.
Read the paper

Mechanical and neural responses from the mechanosensory hairs on the antennule of Gaussia princeps.

Fields, D.M., D.S. Shaeffer & M.J. Weissburg. 2002. Mechanical and neural responses from the mechanosensory hairs on the antennule of Gaussia princeps. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 227: 173-186.
Read the paper

Fluid mechanosensory stimulation of behavior from a planktonic marine copepod Euchaeta rimana Bradford.

Fields, D.M & J. Yen, 2002. Fluid mechanosensory stimulation of behavior from a planktonic marine copepod Euchaeta rimana Bradford. J. Plankton. Res. 24(8): 747-755.
Read the paper

Predatory interactions between a cyclopoid copepod and rotifer sibling species.

Lapesa, S., T.W. Snell, D.M. Fields & M. Serra. 2002. Predatory interactions between a cyclopoid copepod and rotifer sibling species. Freshwater Biology 47: 1685-1695.
Read the paper

The effects of fluid motion on toxicant sensitivity of the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus.

Preston, B.L., T.W. Snell, D.M. Fields, M.J. Weissburg. 2001. The effects of fluid motion on toxicant sensitivity of the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus. Aquatic Toxicology 52(2): 117-131.
Read the paper

Characteristics of the high frequency escape reactions of Oithona sp.

Fields, D.M. 2000. Characteristics of the high frequency escape reactions of Oithona sp. Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology 34: 21-35.
Read the paper

The physical constraints of chemoreception in foraging copepods.

Moore, P.A., D.M. Fields, & J. Yen. 1999. The physical constraints of chemoreception in foraging copepods. Limnol. Oceanogr. 44(1): 166-177.
Read the paper

Size and structure of ‘footprints’ produced by Daphnia: impact of animal size and density gradients.

Gries, T., K. Johnk, D.M. Fields & J.R. Strickler. 1999. Size and structure of ‘footprints’ produced by Daphnia: impact of animal size and density gradients. J. Plankton Res. 21: 509-523.
Read the paper

The implications of biologically and physically created fluid motion on the sensory horizon of copepods.

Fields, D.M. 1998. The implications of biologically and physically created fluid motion on the sensory horizon of copepods. Oceanography 11(2): 26.

Implication of copepod feeding currents on the spatial orientation of their prey.

Fields, D.M. & J. Yen. 1997. Implication of copepod feeding currents on the spatial orientation of their prey. J. Plankton Res. 19: 79-85.
Read the paper

The escape behavior of marine copepods in response to a quantifiable fluid mechanical disturbance.

Fields, D.M. & J. Yen. 1997. The escape behavior of marine copepods in response to a quantifiable fluid mechanical disturbance. J. Plankton Res 19: 1289-1304.
Read the paper

The Interaction of Calanoid Copepods with a Moving Fluid Environment: Implications for the Role of Feeding Current Morphology in Predator – Prey Interactions.

Fields, D.M. 1996. The Interaction of Calanoid Copepods with a Moving Fluid Environment: Implications for the Role of Feeding Current Morphology in Predator – Prey Interactions. Ph.D. State University of New York. p. 353.

The escape behavior of Pleuromamma xiphias from a quantifiable fluid mechanical disturbance. In Lenz, P.H. D.K. Hartline, J.E. Purcell, and D.L. Macmillan.

Fields, D.M. & J. Yen. 1996. The escape behavior of Pleuromamma xiphias from a quantifiable fluid mechanical disturbance. In Lenz, P.H., D.K. Hartline, J.E. Purcell, & D.L. Macmillan. (eds.), Zooplankton: Sensory Ecology and Physiology. Vol. 1, pp. 323-340. Gordan and Breach Publ., Amsterdam.

Copepod egg production in Long Island Sound as a function of the chemical composition of seston.

Jonasdottir, S. H., D.M. Fields, and S. Pantoja. 1995. Copepod egg production in Long Island Sound as a function of the chemical composition of seston. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 119: 87-98.
Read the paper

Outer limits and inner structure: the 3-dimensional flow field of Pleuromamma xiphias (Copepoda).

Fields, D.M. & J. Yen. 1993. Outer limits and inner structure: the 3-dimensional flow field of Pleuromamma xiphias (Copepoda). Bull. Mar. Sci. 53: 84-95.
Read the paper

Escape responses of Acartia hudsonica (Copepoda) nauplii from the flow field of Temora longicornis (Copepoda).

Yen, J. & D.M. Fields. 1992. Escape responses of Acartia hudsonica (Copepoda) nauplii from the flow field of Temora longicornis (Copepoda). Erg. der Limnol.: 36: 123-134.

Vital rates of the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, are unaffected by high CO2 but are affected by temperature.

Thompson, C. J.A. Runge, D.M. Fields, S. Shema, R.M. Bjelland, C.M.F. Durif, A.B. Skiftesvik, M. Arts, A. Mount, V. Chan & H.I. Browman. Vital rates of the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, are unaffected by high CO2 but are affected by temperature.

Interaction between temperature and pH on growth and respiration of the planktonic copepod, Calanus finmarchicus

Runge, J.A., David Fields, Cameron Thompson, Caroline M.F. Durif, Steven Shema, Reidun Bjelland, Anne Berit Skiftesvik and Howard I. Browman. Interaction between temperature and pH on growth and respiration of the planktonic copepod, Calanus finmarchicus. ICES Journal of Marine Science.

Seismic air gun shooting has no effect on the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus.

Opstad, I., D.M. Fields, H.I. Browman, A.B. Skiftesvik, N.O. Handegard S. Shema. Seismic air gun shooting has no effect on the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus.

Host recognition mechanisms in the sea lice: genomic and functional approaches to identify novel chemoattractants derived from salmon skin.

Núñez-Acuña, G., D.M. Fields, S. Shema, H.I. Browman, A.B. Skiftesvik & C. Gallardo-Escárate. Host recognition mechanisms in the sea lice: genomic and functional approaches to identify novel chemoattractants derived from salmon skin.

Copepod mechanoreception in viscous fluid environments

Mellard, J.P, Fields, D.M., Brown, J., Weissburg, M.J., Yen, J. Copepod mechanoreception in viscous fluid environments. Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology.

Euphausiid Patches and Surface Feeding by Northern Humpback Whales: Responses to Internal Waves over a Submarine Bank. Marine Ecology Progess Series.

Incze, L.S., N. Wolff, J. Lerczak, S. Kraus, A. Bauckus, S. Rosen and D.M. Fields. Euphausiid Patches and Surface Feeding by Northern Humpback Whales: Responses to Internal Waves over a Submarine Bank. Marine Ecology Progess Series.

Temperature effects on metabolic rate of Calanus spp.

Fields, D.M., H.I. Browman, A.B. Skiftesvik & S. Shema. Temperature effects on metabolic rate of Calanus spp.

Effect of ocean acidification on the grazing rates of Calanus spp. feeding on lithed and delithed coccolithophores.

Fields, D.M., H.I. Browman, A.B. Skiftesvik & S. Shema. Effect of ocean acidification on the grazing rates of Calanus spp. feeding on lithed and delithed coccolithophores.

Copepods as 1021 ocean bioreactors

Fields, D.M., H.I. Browman & B. Twining. Copepods as 10^21 ocean bioreactors.

The effects of hydrogen peroxide on mortality, escape response and oxygen consumption of Calanus spp.

Escobar, R.H., D.M. Fields, H.I. Browman, S.D. Shema, R.M. Bjelland, A.B. Skiftesvik & C.M.F. Durif. The effects of hydrogen peroxide on mortality, escape response and oxygen consumption of Calanus spp. Environmental Science and Technology.

The proteome of Calanus finmarchicus is unaffected by elevated pCO2.

Dineshram, R., V. Thiyagarajan, D.M. Fields, J.A. Runge, C. Thompson, S. Shema, R.M. Bjelland, C.M.F. Durif, A.B. Skiftesvik & H.I. BROWMAN. The proteome of Calanus finmarchicus is unaffected by elevated pCO2.

Last updated: August 31, 2017